Luos of Kenya value education and pride which they call "nyadhi". The Inglehart—Welzel cultural map of the world is a two-dimensional cultural map showing the cultural values of the countries of the world along two dimensions: The traditional versus secular-rational values reflect the transition from a religious understanding of the world to a dominance of science and bureaucracy. The second dimension named survival values versus self-expression values represents the transition from industrial society to post-industrial society.
Cultures can be distinguished as tight and loose in relation to how much they adhere to social norms and tolerates deviance. A history of threats, such as natural disasters, high population density, or vulnerability to infectious diseases, is associated with greater tightness. It has been suggested that tightness allows cultures to coordinate more effectively to survive threats. Studies in evolutionary psychology have led to similar findings. The so-called regality theory finds that war and other perceived collective dangers have a profound influence on both the psychology of individuals and on the social structure and cultural values.
A dangerous environment leads to a hierarchical, authoritarian, and warlike culture, while a safe and peaceful environment fosters an egalitarian and tolerant culture. Relative values differ between people, and on a larger scale, between people of different cultures. On the other hand, there are theories of the existence of absolute values ,  which can also be termed noumenal values and not to be confused with mathematical absolute value.
An absolute value can be described as philosophically absolute and independent of individual and cultural views, as well as independent of whether it is known or apprehended or not. Ludwig Wittgenstein was pessimistic towards the idea that an elucidation would ever happen regarding the absolute values of actions or objects; "we can speak as much as we want about "life" and " its meaning ," and believe that what we say is important.
But these are no more than expressions and can never be facts, resulting from a tendency of the mind and not the heart or the will". Philosophic value may be split into instrumental value and intrinsic values. An instrumental value is worth having as a means towards getting something else that is good e. An intrinsically valuable thing is worth for itself, not as a means to something else. It is giving value intrinsic and extrinsic properties. An ethic good with instrumental value may be termed an ethic mean , and an ethic good with intrinsic value may be termed an end-in-itself.
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An object may be both a mean and end-in-itself. Intrinsic and instrumental goods are not mutually exclusive categories. In these cases, the sum of instrumental specifically the all instrumental value and intrinsic value of an object may be used when putting that object in value systems , which is a set of consistent values and measures.
The intensity of philosophic value is the degree it is generated or carried out, and may be regarded as the prevalence of the good, the object having the value. It should not be confused with the amount of value per object, although the latter may vary too, e. For example, taking a fictional life-stance of accepting waffle-eating as being the end-in-itself, the intensity may be the speed that waffles are eaten, and is zero when no waffles are eaten, e.
Still, each waffle that had been present would still have value, no matter if it was being eaten or not, independent on intensity. Instrumental value conditionality in this case could be exampled by every waffle not present, making them less valued by being far away rather than easily accessible. In many life stances it is the product of value and intensity that is ultimately desirable, i. Maximizing lifestances have the highest possible intensity as an imperative. There may be a distinction between positive and negative philosophic or ethic value.
While positive ethic value generally correlates with something that is pursued or maximized, negative ethic value correlates with something that is avoided or minimized. A protected value also sacred value is one that an individual is unwilling to trade off no matter what the benefits of doing so may be. For example, some people may be unwilling to kill another person, even if it means saving many others individuals. Protected values tend to be "intrinsically good", and most people can in fact imagine a scenario when trading off their most precious values would be necessary.
A conceptual exploration of values education in the context of schooling in South Africa
Protected values have been found to be play a role in protracted conflicts e. According to Jonathan Baron and Mark Spranca,  protected values arise from norms as described in theories of deontological ethics the latter often being referred to in context with Immanuel Kant. The protectedness implies that people are concerned with their participation in transactions rather than just the consequences of it. A value system is a set of consistent values used for the purpose of ethical or ideological integrity.
As a member of a society, group or community, an individual can hold both a personal value system and a communal value system at the same time. In this case, the two value systems one personal and one communal are externally consistent provided they bear no contradictions or situational exceptions between them. Abstract exceptions serve to reinforce the ranking of values. Their definitions are generalized enough to be relevant to any and all situations. Situational exceptions, on the other hand, are ad hoc and pertain only to specific situations.
The presence of a type of exception determines one of two more kinds of value systems:. The difference between these two types of systems can be seen when people state that they hold one value system yet in practice deviate from it, thus holding a different value system. For example, a religion lists an absolute set of values while the practice of that religion may include exceptions. Implicit exceptions bring about a third type of value system called a formal value system. Whether idealized or realized, this type contains an implicit exception associated with each value: "as long as no higher-priority value is violated".
For instance, a person might feel that lying is wrong.
Perhaps too simplistic in practice, such a hierarchical structure may warrant explicit exceptions. Although sharing a set of common values, like hockey is better than baseball or ice cream is better than fruit, two different parties might not rank those values equally. Also, two parties might disagree as to certain actions are right or wrong , both in theory and in practice, and find themselves in an ideological or physical conflict. Ethonomics , the discipline of rigorously examining and comparing value systems [ citation needed ] , enables us to understand politics and motivations more fully in order to resolve conflicts.
An example conflict would be a value system based on individualism pitted against a value system based on collectivism. A rational value system organized to resolve the conflict between two such value systems might take the form below.
Note that added exceptions can become recursive and often convoluted. Philosophical value is distinguished from economic value , since it is independent on some other desired condition or commodity. The economic value of an object may rise when the exchangeable desired condition or commodity, e.
Moral Values and Civic Education: An Essay on "The Interrelation of Aims"
Nevertheless, economic value may be regarded as a result of philosophical value. In the subjective theory of value , the personal philosophic value a person puts in possessing something is reflected in what economic value this person puts on it. The limit where a person considers to purchase something may be regarded as the point where the personal philosophic value of possessing something exceeds the personal philosophic value of what is given up in exchange for it, e.
In this light, everything can be said to have a "personal economic value" in contrast to its "societal economic value. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Values disambiguation. Further information: Value economics. The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free Press. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. October Downloaded 13 February Human Systems Management 32 4 : — Hoyer; Deborah J.
MacInnis; Rik Pieters Consumer Behavior. Cengage Learning. SAGE Publishers.
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Kahle, Pierre Valette-Florence Be an active citizen need new ways of educating students which are different from traditional learning methods. Active learning method derived from learned-centred approaches stress more on students as intelligent entities rather than just receivers. Employing methods of active learning in citizenship education has some obstacles but the advantages are greater than passive ways of learning.
If we want to translate participation in the sense of civic studies, the best meaning will be the development but its function is not clear Clarke and Missingham, The idea of participation of young citizens indicates that the mission of the state in a democracy is to achieve as the process whereby they can perform in the common good White, Modem developed civilizations have confronted rapid developments.
Thus, sociologists have named this stage of post-traditional societies as postmodemity, risk society Beck, , or late-modemity Giddens, As all societies become gradually more diverse, encouraging young people for participate in collective actions is becoming tougher Zuniga et al. In these days more than half of young citizens do not like to involve in collective activities in many countries Kennedy, The idea of citizenship itself has low existing in educational environment even it is the leading theme of teaching and learning Davies and Evans, However, little is known about how active citizenship works and whether there are shared strategies which lead to effective practices GHK, Citizenship in an active way means a transformation of personal behaviour to more involvement Hoskins and Mascherini, It means participating in civil society willingly to make more common sense Anheier, ; Howell and Pearce, A difficulty with this idea is that while rights are frequently written down as part of law, responsibilities are not as well described and there may be disagreements among the citizens as to what the responsibilities are.
Active citizenship associates with an active citizenry having the authority to engage in flexible decision making as characterized from influential citizen participation which contains activities like voting, joining public hearings, being part of citizen boards and participating in public opinion analyses Weeks, The concept of active citizenship is different in every context and society, but generally they have similar meanings, for instance, in European sense it means have required capacity to face with new issues in a modern era plus an awareness of common norms and identity towards social and cultural interplanetary European Commission-Education and Training, Several characters of active citizenry regularly reappear through the literature on civic culture such as being knowledgeable, independent, courteous and aware of the common good, loyal to democratic principles, to provide input and be informed of the possible effects of the several decisions made on their behalf White, Citizenship study has in the past concentrated more on the responsibilities and rights of the person in association with the state.
Citizenship in its active realm is a combination of participation, right-based development, good governments and supporting role of government in helping citizens Clarke and Missingham, The two main aspects are:.
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Youth as active citizens: Youth are the core of the development process of each nation with holding the key of changing or continuing policies but their contributions will not achieve full impact unless they are engaged in their nation as a whole Varshavsky, The issue of engaging them in current social activities is discussed by many scholars Youniss et al.
This was seen to be especially vital for youth, to teach them that they had to take account of the interests of others GHK, Young people can be engaged to civic issues if allow them to do so Flanagan and Christens, Approaches to active citizenship: There are two approaches about citizenship which can explain active citizenship:. Dimension of active citizenship: Active citizenship has four dimensions related to citizenship practices which summarizing sociological conditions represent as the capacity how people can act based on their rights , connection relationship with others , challenge desire of self in practices during involvement and context how people aware of diverse options during social practices Clarke and Missingham, Each of above indicates a shape of contribution towards citizenship by a person Jansen et al.
As shown in Fig. This figure shows the importance of participation for social integration, while identification exaggerates cohesion in the society with double headed arrows of their relations in making citizens active in a society. Learning civic competency can improve active citizenship by allowing to some repetitions and exchange experience through interaction by each side of involving persons.
The willing to participate is fixed to the context. As a result all educational programs designed for practice based on the context can bring more people to participate in civil activities Wenger, As a result, education can contribute to these participatory competencies by:. The importance of active citizenship is being progressively accepted in education GHK, Active citizenship term has different meaning in the field of education Holford and van der Veen, and education for job Preston and Green, , shows the connection between education and active citizenship.
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Studies related to active citizenship reveals its connection to social results of education Hoskins and Mascherini, ; Preston and Green, Learning as a form of active citizenship involves the education of young citizens, resulting in improved decision making regarding community-wide issues. Another component of active citizenship refers to issues relating to learn about the interaction, ties and connections to the community of citizens Stivers, These components will be used to further explore local and community involvement of young citizens in the devolution era White, The needs of youth to learn active citizenship: Young people are expected to be equipped with appropriate civic skills for be active part in their community.
This needs lifelong education Delanty, ; Schuguransky and Myers, through formal, non-formal and informal education. The tendency to happen this is that young people need to consider them as citizens who are actively participating Crick, They need to do their best in learning forms of involvement Branson, This leads to the ways of developing active citizens recognized by most democratic societies Branson, ; Crick, Be an active citizen needs to learn competencies for participation.
These competencies are crucial for living in a modern society for all people specially youth Hoskins and Crick, The significance of active citizenship as part of life-long learning is extensively recognized and attention in education for active citizenship has been rising GHK, Developing related competencies needs mental awareness of learners about the environment for employing them in analyzing current issues Lathrop, According to Fogarty and McTighue there are three steps for expanding civic competency which are gaining skills Marzano and Hutchins, , critical thinking for problem solving De Bono, and other thoughtful application Brown and Palincsar, This last one is the important particle in citizenship education which called by Fogarty as thoughtful classroom for developing civic competencies.
According to Chickering and Gamson , youth develop their higher order thinking skills in such learning processes. Active learning is the best for being an active citizenship Middleton, and has been linked to social integration Braxton et al. Dewing mentioned about the goals of active learning:.