As many as 5, armed whites, hundreds of them deputized by the police, descended on Greenwood that night and into the next morning. They used a mixture of plundering, coercion, and violence to reassert the supposed racial hierarchy of Tulsa. Houses were looted for their valuables, like jewelry, as well as their invaluables, like family Bibles.
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Jackson, a prominent Greenwood surgeon, was shot by two assailants when he emerged from his home with his hands in the air. Buildings were set on fire systematically, with teams of white rioters gathering flammable materials in the center of a room, dousing them with kerosene, and igniting them. The fire department failed to respond to most emergency calls during the night. Either way, along with the roving machine gun that white attackers mounted on a truck, heavy-duty weaponry confirmed that Greenwood had transformed from a neighborhood to a war zone in a matter of hours.
Others fled farther north into neighboring communities, never to return. But most were hauled to internment camps around the city at gunpoint, where they were forced to stay until a white person often their employer would come and vouch for them. Some residents were imprisoned for as long as two weeks, and even after they were set free, they had to carry around green identification cards signed by whites to prove they posed no threat. The attack on Greenwood destroyed 1, houses and saw the looting of another , according to the American Red Cross, leaving 9, black Tulsans homeless.
An accurate death toll will likely never be calculated, though eyewitnesses said they saw unidentified black bodies stacked onto trucks and dumped into unmarked graves. While the Tulsa Race Riot Commission issued a report in confirming only 39 deaths 26 black and 13 white , it also acknowledged that previous fatality estimates ranging from to people were credible.
A Tulsa minister laid the blame on W.
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DuBois, who had visited the city several months prior. The charges against Dick Rowland were dropped. Sarah Page gave a statement to police recanting her assault claim just hours before the shooting started. White people put the incident behind them.
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Black people, facing an uncertain path forward in Greenwood, lived in tents on the plots of their former houses. Deborah Hunter remembers when Greenwood was the heartbeat of North Tulsa. She prayed at Paradise Baptist Church, just a short walk from the stores and restaurants lining Greenwood Avenue.
She skated at the neighborhood rink and caught matinees at the Rex Theater, where kids could see movies for a dime. That was how she first discovered that the world she grew up in had literally risen from the ashes. How could no one have told me about this? Everything had been built back, and nobody talked about it.
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The revival of Black Wall Street began almost immediately after its burning. Initially, the city of Tulsa promised to help rebuild what its citizens had destroyed; instead, officials passed an ordinance requiring that new structures in Greenwood be at least two stories tall and made of expensive fireproof materials. It was a naked attempt to price black residents out of their own community. But a trio of local lawyers, including John W.
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Franklin, filed a lawsuit against the city. They worked out of a tent in the burned-out business district and eventually brought the case to the state Supreme Court, which deemed the ordinance unconstitutional. By the end of , Greenwood residents had rebuilt more than structures in the neighborhood. Over the ensuing decades, Greenwood continued to thrive. More than businesses populated the area by the early s. But even as Greenwood prospered again, the riot morphed into forgotten lore. No one learned about it in school.
And at home, some black families chose to bury the trauma rather than expose it to their offspring. After discovering the magazine article, Hunter remembers the challenge of getting her grandmother to acknowledge that she had survived the attack and been placed in an internment camp. The play interweaves the perspectives of both white and black Tulsans from the s and the modern era.
In one rehearsal I observed, year-old Geren Davis alternated between a swaggering portrayal of Dick Rowland and a ragefully despairing depiction of Andre Harris, the brother of Eric Harris, an unarmed black man killed by Tulsa police in Later, after researching the history of Greenwood, she returned to Tulsa to host story circles with local residents, where they discussed their own dealings with racism and how they related to the massacre.
Andre Harris was among the participants. Those insights are also included in the play. Vanessa Adams-Harris has been performing Big Mama Speaks , a one-woman play about a survivor of the massacre, off and on for nearly 10 years. Part of the problem is that the story of the massacre, if told accurately, would paint thousands of white people as pillagers and murderers. Tulsa historians also suspect that the cool reception to Rosewood , the John Singleton film about the destruction of a black town in Florida, has quelled interest in another film about a racial massacre.
A lot of our history is really ugly. What makes my book special? What makes me weird? Stock photo pretty vs unusually pretty. What makes my book weird? Who is my book for? Can change based on the audience Example: Twilight What is the number one most interesting thing about my book?
It is ok to have multiple pitches. Adapt your pitch for your listener. Leave the audience wanting more! Then practice more. Jerome explains to them he thinks they are being xenophobic, which in this case means having or showing dislike of or prejudice against people from other countries. When they arrive home the doorman says no one is allowed up to the penthouse until Gunther leaves, and he says he hasn't. Jerome explains that he may be on his way down and so the doorman lets them go.
The children are alone and decide to search the penthouse for Gunther, using bread crumbs to track their progress in their ridiculously large suite. They find nothing, so they decide to look for him in the other apartments by listening through doors.
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They reach the bottom and find nothing but the fact that the building is 66 stories high. The doorman is putting up decorations on the elevator and Klaus begins to think really hard. That night Klaus tells his sister that there is one elevator on each floor except for top floor which has two. They go to investigate and find one is an ersatz elevator.
They then make an ersatz rope out of cords, ties, and curtains. They climb down and find the Quagmires trapped in a large cage. They say Gunther is trying to put them in as an object for the auction and then have an associate bid the highest and smuggle them out of the city.
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Violet says she could melt and bend the metal cage and they go back up to make the invention. They find three fire tongs and warm them up in one of the 50 or so ovens in the penthouse. They climb back down to find the Quagmires had been taken by Count Olaf again. They are very grieved and go back up to the penthouse. Klaus decides to look in the auction catalog to see if they can find the lot that the Quagmires will be put into.
They decide it must be lot 50, V. They calmly walk out the door and she leads them to the ersatz elevator. She opens the door and pushes them down the shaft, but they don't hit the ground. They hit a net and become trapped. She leaves them and goes to the auction. Sunny uses her teeth to climb up the shaft.
Violet tells her to get the ersatz rope and jump down here. Sunny bites a hole in the net and they attach the rope to the pegs that hold up the net.